The implementation of climate protection targets (Paris Agreement, Climate Protection Plan 2050) also requires drastic measures to reduce greenhouse gases in the transport sector. Thus, by 2030, transport-related emissions in Germany must be reduced by at least 40 % compared to 1990.
Based on the results of model calculations, it is shown that even with a very ambitious electrification of transport (10 million e-cars) and taking into account traffic avoidance and modal shift, significant amounts of advanced fuels with a low carbon footprint will be needed to achieve the targets. In particular, biomass-based or electricity-based synthetic products have the potential to fill these gaps.
On the basis of complex modelling of the process chains in question, it was possible to determine the costs (CAPEX, OPEX) for different framework conditions and production locations (Germany, Norway, MENA), taking into account the transport effort. In the article, the results for the different scenarios and products are presented and discussed. For Germany, the high electricity prices lead to very high production costs for electricity-based fuels. In contrast, biomass-based products, especially 2nd generation ethanol from lignocellulose, can be produced comparatively cheaply. In contrast, in the MENA countries (North Africa, Middle East) as well as in Norway, electricity from renewable sources - and thus also hydrogen - can be produced at low cost. However, the long-distance transport of hydrogen (by ship or pipeline) is very costly and leads to a considerable price premium. Therefore, especially in the MENA region, on-site synthesis to more easily transportable liquid products is a suitable option. However, the supply costs for the required carbon dioxide must also be taken into account.